Grammar Info

N1 Lesson 4: 2/17


What kind of, No matter what kind of, No … (with a negative verb), Any... (with a negative verb)


いかなる + Noun


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About いかなる

如何(いか)なる is a combination of 如何(いか), and なる. なる being derived from the classical auxiliary verb なり 'to be'. 如何(いか) is never used as a word by itself, and will always be attached to something else when it has the reading of いか. However, its meaning is the same as the modern どう 'how'. Because of this, いかなる is interchangeable with どんな 'what kind of', with the exception that it is primarily used only in books and formal writing.
いかなる is classified as being attributive, meaning that it will appear directly before a noun, or modify a noun somewhere within the same clause.
  • いかなることがあっても、()して()(はな)してはいけません。わかりましたか?
    No matter what happens, you must not let go. Do you understand?
  • (わたし)たちはいかなる(とき)にも出動(しゅつどう)できるように、(つね)訓練(くんれん)しています。
    We are constantly training to be ready to dispatch at any moment.
  • (かれ)らはいかなる要求(ようきゅう)にも(おう)じなければならない。
    They must comply with any request, no matter what it is.
Just like どんな, when に is added to いかなる, a negative statement will usually follow. This translates as 'no matter how much (A)', or 'no matter what kind of (A)'. However, に will not directly follow いかなる like it does with どんな. Instead, it will appear later in the sentence before the verb.
  • いかなる状況(じょうきょう)()かれても、(あきら)めずに()(すす)むことを忘れないでください。
    Remember, no matter what situation you find yourself in, do not give up and keep pushing forward.
  • (かれ)らは結婚(けっこん)してから(なが)いから、いかなる困難(こんなん)にあっても、二人(ふたり)()()えられる。
    They've been married long enough that no matter what challenges they face, they can overcome them together.
Occasionally, いかな may also be used, but this is far less common.
  • いかな状況(じょうきょう)にも()()(ひと)になりたい。
    I want to be a person who can withstand any situation.
Fun Fact
Both な and なる are derived from the classical auxiliary verb なり. Structures that stem from なり can be seen in many modern parts of the Japanese language. This also includes なら, the hypothetical form of だ, which shares the same meaning of 'to be' as なり. While な is the form that appears with most adjectival nouns, なる is still sometimes used in place of な when the speaker wants to be poetic, or give a sense of archaism.


  • 論文(ろんぶん):「(かめ)とはいかなる(さかな)なのか?」

    Essay: 'What kind of fish is a turtle?'

    • Kappazonグループはいかなる理由(りゆう)であろうとも、Kappazonネットショップからいかなる製品(せいひん)削除(さくじょ)する権利(けんり)保有(ほゆう)しています。

      Kappazon Group reserves the right to remove any product from the Kappazon online store, no matter the reason.

      • シヌラ電気動力株式会社(でんきどうりょくかぶしきがいしゃ)いかなる第三者(だいさんしゃ)にも顧客(こきゃく)情報(じょうほう)販売(はんばい)配布(はいふ)いたしません。

        The Shinura Electric Power Company does not sell or disclose any data to third parties (no matter what).

        • いかなる(かた)ともログイン情報(じょうほう)またはパスワードの共有(きょうゆう)はお(ひか)(ねが)ます。

          We request that you refrain from sharing login or password information with anyone (no matter who).

          • パイロットはいかなる事態(じたい)になろうとも、適切(てきせつ)対処(たいしょ)せねばならない。

            A pilot has to react accordingly no matter what the situation might become.

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