Grammar Info

N5 Lesson 6: 2/13

い-Adjective + です (Predicate)

い-Adjective (Predicate)

Structure

Examples:
かわい
(あたら)
(さむ)

Details

  • Part of Speech

    Adjective

  • Word Type

    Independent Word

  • Register

    Standard

  • 品詞

    形容詞

  • 単語の種類

    自立語

  • 使用域

    一般

About い-Adjective (Predicate)

A predicate is a word that describes the topic/subject of a sentence. The Japanese equivalent of this is a 述語(じゅつご), which literally means 'statement word'. As a predicate, い-Adjectives can appear by themselves (when the word they are describing does not need to be stated), or they may be used at the end of a sentence.

When there are no other words apart from the adjective itself, it comes across similar to 'It's cute', or 'It's hot', and similar expressions in English. We just have to guess what the 'it' is from context.

In many sentences, either or could be used to mark the word/words that the predicate is describing. However, which one sounds more natural will depend on many factors. In general, if you are specifically pointing out something as being different from other things in the same category, will be used.

In this example, is distinguishing this specific bath as having a unique level of hotness compared to others (maybe the water system is broken and only boiling water comes out). would sound unnatural in this type of sentence, as it is not the 'normal' state of the bath.

Fun Fact

All い-Adjectives are words of Japanese origin.

Examples

--:--

    (あつ)
    (あつ)いです

    It is hot.

    (さむ)
    (さむ)いです

    It is cold.

    これ(たの)
    これ(たの)しいです

    This is fun.

    (ねこ)かわい
    (ねこ)かわいいです

    Cats are cute.

    (わたし)(いえ)(ちか)
    (わたし)(いえ)(ちか)いです

    My house is near (by).

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