Grammar Info

N1 Lesson 6: 2/17

だに + しない

Not even, Not at all, Never could have

Structure

Noun + だに + しない

Exceptions:
(ゆめ) + ()+ だに + (おも)わない

Details

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    Formal

  • 使用域

    硬い

About だに + しない

だに is an adverbial particle that shares a similar meaning to さえ and すら 'even', but is more commonly found in classical literature. It will be paired with negative structures and presents 'minimum' or 'light' examples to which (A) does not apply, and therefore obviously also does not apply to anything greater than (A). It will be translated as 'not even (A), so not (B)', or 'not (B) at all'.
だに will be seen following nouns or noun-phrases.
  • アメリカでこんな(おお)きい地震(じしん)()るとは(だれ)予想(よそう)だにしなかった。
    No one could have expected such a big earthquake to happen in the United States.
  • (かれ)彼女(かのじょ)(わか)れるなんて想像(そうぞう)だにしなかったよ。
    I would have never imagined he would leave her.
  • まさかこの(とし)になって子供(ことど)(さず)かるなんて(おも)だにしていなかった。
    I would have never thought I would have a child at this age.
Although だに often appears when the (B) part of a sentence is negative, だに itself is not limited to being used this way. When following verbs, and the (B) phrase is not negative, だに simply means 'just'. It is best to keep this in mind, as the core meaning of this adverbial particle will always be to mark the word or phrase before it as an extremely small amount or lower limit.
Caution
だに is only used in a very limited set of expressions in modern Japanese. Some example of these are (ゆめ)にだに 'even in a dream', 想像(そうぞう)するだに 'even in my imagination', (かんが)えるだに 'even to consider', ()くだに 'even hearing', 微動(びどう)だに 'even a quiver'.

Examples

--:--

    小説(しょうせつ):たかぎさん「にしかたさんのことが大好(だいす)きよ。」
    たかぎの(くち)からは想像(そうぞう)だにしていなかった言葉(ことば)がいきなり()()してきた。

    Novel, Takagi-san: 'I love you, Nishikata-san.'
    The words I never could have imagined suddenly came out of Takagi's mouth.

    アニメのプロローグ、(かた)()「あのとき、(おれ)はあんな悲劇(ひげき)()()けていたなんて、(ゆめ)にだに(おも)わなかった。」

    Anime prologue, narrator: 'Back then, I couldn't have even dreamed that such a tragedy lay ahead.'

    小説(しょうせつ):「彼女(かのじょ)はソファーに(すわ)ったままで、まるで本物(ほんもの)人形(にんぎょう)のように微動(びどう)だにしない。」

    Novel: 'She remained seated on the sofa, just like a doll, not even moving an inch.'

    記事(きじ):「ビットコインがこれほどになるとは2009(ねん)(はじ)めには(だれ)予想(よそう)だにしなかった。」

    Article: 'No one could have even predicted in early 2009 that bitcoin would come this far.'

    小説(しょうせつ):「(かれ)(こころ)(なか)にこんな暗闇(くらやみ)(かか)えていたなど、勇者(ゆうしゃ)夢想(むそう)だにしなかった。」

    Novel: 'The hero couldn't have even dreamed that he was carrying such darkness in his heart.'

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