Grammar Info

N2 Lesson 2: 10/24

(もと)

Under, Under the supervision of, On the basis of

Structure

Noun + もとで(1)

(1) もとに、もと

Details

  • Register

    Formal

  • 使用域

    硬い

About の下で

When the noun (もと) 'underneath' is combined with either of the case marking particles で or に, it will indicate that something is happening either under the influence, guidance, or basis of (A). (A) will be a noun that is connected to (もと) or に through the case-marking particle の.
In this grammar structure, (A) may mark either a specific person or some situation equally as naturally.
  • こんな(きび)しい環境(かんきょう)(もと)試料(しりょう)採取(さいしゅ)できたのは(みな)(さま)のおかげです。
    Thanks to all of you, we were able to gather samples under such harsh conditions.
  • 先輩(せんぱい)(もと)(はたら)けて光栄(こうえい)です!
    It is my pleasure that I can work under you!
  • その行為(こうい)はこの法律(ほうりつ)(もと)禁止(きんし)されています。
    That action is prohibited on the basis of this law.
Occasionally, に or で will be able to be omitted in preference of a comma directly after (もと). This expression is considered quite formal, and the omission of the particle in favor of a comma will make it sound even more formal.
  • (みな)さんの協力(きょうりょく)(もと)、このプロジェクトを無事(ぶじ)()えることができました。(みな)さんありがとうございました。
    Under everyone's hard work, we were able to successfully complete this project. Thank you all.
  • 佐々木(ささき)先輩(せんぱい)のご指導(しどう)(もと)企画書(きかくしょ)作成(さくせい)しています。
    I am creating a proposal, on the basis of Sasaki-senpai's guidance.
Fun-fact - (もと) may be replaced with () attached directly to many different nouns, and still carry the same meaning. Examples of these are 統治下(とうちか) 'under the reign', 指揮下(しきか) 'under the direction', 影響下(えいきょうか) 'under the influence', 占領下(せんりょうか) 'under the occupation', 支配下(しはいか) 'under the control', and others.
  • 沖縄(おきなわ)は1945(ねん)から1972(ねん)までアメリカの統治(とうち)()であった。
    Okinawa was under the reign of America from 1945 to 1972.
  • その(くに)現在(げんざい)敵国(てきこく)支配(しはい)()にある。
    Currently, that country is under the control of our enemy.

Examples

--:--

    ある金属(きんぞく)一定(いってい)状態(じょうたい)(もと)電気(でんき)抵抗(ていこう)(きゅう)にゼロになる。そういう(ちょう)伝導(でんどう)物質(ぶっしつ)英語(えいご)では「superconductors」と()ばれている。

    The electrical resistance in certain metals suddenly falls to zero under specified conditions. Such super-conductive materials are called 'superconductors' in English.

    ベジカと(たたか)うためにそんゴツウはカエ王様(おうさま)(もと)修行(しゅぎょう)した。

    In order to battle with Vegika, Songotsu trained under King Kae.

    このエンジンは80()以下(いか)という温度(おんど)条件(じょうけん)(もと)(すく)なくとも5(まん)時間(じかん)継続的(けいぞくてき)稼働(かどう)できる。

    Under the condition that the temperature is lower than 80 degrees Celcius, this engine can operate non-stop for at least 50000 hours.

    叔父(おじ)さん(もと)(はたら)いた3年間(ねんかん)は、(ぼく)にとって宝物(たからもの)です。

    The three years that I worked under my uncle were special to me.

    火山(かざん)学者(がくしゃ)(もと)(おし)えていただいた経験(けいけん)()かした仕事(しごと)がしたい。

    I want to work somewhere that makes use of the things that I learned under a volcanologist.

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