Grammar Info

N1 Lesson 5: 9/17


To depend on


Noun + (如何(いかん))+ かかっている
Phrase + かどうか(1) + (如何(いかん))+ かかっている
WH-Word + Phrase + + (如何(いかん))+ かかっている

(1) (いな)


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About にかかっている

にかかっている is a structure that may be translated as 'to depend on (A)', or 'to rest on (A)'. It is a combination of the case marking particle に, and the ている continuous form of ()かる 'to depend'. Although にかかっている may attach to nouns, it is also frequently seen following set structures such as かどうか 'whether or not', and か(いな)か 'yes or no'.
  • 来月(らいげつ)旅行(りょこう)()けるかは、部長(ぶちょう)(ぼく)(やす)みをくれるかにかかっている
    Whether I can go on the trip next month depends on whether my boss will give me time off.
  • 地球(ちきゅう)未来(みらい)若者(わかもの)にかかっているから、若者(わかもの)教育(きょういく)しなくてはいけない。
    We must educate the youth because the future of this earth depends on them.
  • 自分(じぶん)()()げた会社(かいしゃ)成功(せいこう)するかどうかは自分(じぶん)努力(どりょく)にかかっている
    Whether your company will succeed or not depends on your own efforts.
The に in にかかっている may sometimes be replaced with the adverb 如何(いか)に 'how', 'in what way', or 'to what extent. In these situations, the meaning stays relatively the same, but will extend to 'depending on the way in which (A)', or 'depending on to what extent (A)'.
  • この商品(しょうひん)()()きはマーケティングが成功(せいこう)するかどうか如何(いか)にかかっている
    The sales of this product will depend on the success of the marketing.
  • みなさんが合格(ごうかく)できるかできないかは、(みな)さんが努力(どりょく)するかどうか如何(いか)にかかっている
    Whether or not you will be able to pass the exam depends on how hard you are going to work.
Fun Fact
()かる is from the same family of verbs as ()かる, ()かる, and (かか)る. These all have a similar meaning, but with a slightly different nuance. Japanese has many verbs like this that have the same reading, but with a nuance that changes based on the kanji. Due to kanji not always being used for many of these, it will be important to be able to recognize which nuance is being used in any given situation.




    Homura: 'Everything depends on one girl's choice.'


    'It is fair to say that whether or not one succeeds depends on how hard one can work rather than one's ability.'


    Coach: 'Whether we win or lose depends on our cooperation, so let's do our best!'


    Article: 'Company President Tanaka believes that the company's future depends on whether or not it is able to acquire a government loan.'


    Novel: 'The fate of the empire depends on whether Tanya's strategy succeeds or not.'

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にかかっている – Grammar Discussion

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