Grammar Info

N4 Lesson 6: 9/16

させられる (Causative-Passive)

Verbs (Causative-passive voice), To be made to do something, To be forced to do

Structure

Examples:
[る¹]Verb → () + させられる
[す]Verb(はな) + させられる

[る⁵]Verb → (すわ) + らせられる
(すわ) + らされる

[う]Verb(うた) + わせられる
(うた) + (うた)わされる

[く]Verb(ある) + かせられる
(ある) + (ある)かされる

[つ]Verb() + たせられる
() + ()たされる

[ぬ]Verb() + なせられる
() + ()なされる

[ぶ]Verb() + ばせられる
() + ()ばされる

[む]Verb(やす) + ませられる
(やす) + (やす)まされる

[ぐ]Verb(およ) + がせられる
(およ) + (およ)がされる

Exceptions:
する → させられる
くる → こさせられる

Details

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About Causative-Passive

When the auxiliary verb せる (or させる) 'to make/let do' is combined with the auxiliary verb られる 'to be the receiver of', it creates the causative-passive form of verbs in Japanese. These sentences will be from the perspective of the person who has 'been made to do' something, and are very often negative (against the will of the speaker).
First, verbs must be conjugated in the same way that they would be with せる, or させる. After that simply remove the る, and then add られる. This will create the verb form させられる (linked with る-Verbs), or せられる (linked with う-Verbs).
  • おばあちゃん(いえ)()(なか)いっぱいでもいっぱい()させられる
    When I go to my grandma's house, she makes me eat a lot, even if I am full.
  • そんな(こと)させられる(おも)なかった
    I didn't think that I would be forced to do something like that.
  • 先輩(せんぱい)(いろ)(さけ)()せられたから(あたま)(いた)
    Because my senpai made me drink all sorts of alcohol, my head hurts.
  • 友達(ともだち)(つめ)(みず)()させられるのが(きら)
    I don't like it when my friend douses me with cold water.
As with the causative form, する and () have special conjugation rules. する will be replaced completely by させられる, while () will become ()させられる.
  • 上司(じょうし)力仕事(ちからしごと)させられる
    My boss forces me to do physical labor.
  • 友達(ともだち)()ないバンドコンサートに()てこさせられる
    My friend forced me to go to the concert of a band that I do not know.
Caution
Unlike with causative verbs, where the actual doer of a sentence (marked with ) is considered to be the person who 'caused' the action, られる reverses the perspective. This makes the doer (marked with ) the person who is being 'forced' to do something. When the person that is 'causing' the action appears in a causative-passive sentence, they will be marked with .
  • 子供(こども)(ころ)(あに)勉強(べんきょう)させられていた
    When we were still kids, my older brother was forced to study.
  • 子供(こども)(ころ)(あに)勉強(べんきょう)させられていた
    When we were still children, my older brother forced me to study.
Caution
れる may not be used in place of られる in causative-passive sentences. This is because せる and させる both have せ (an え sound kana) at the point where they will connect with られる. This is a rule for all verbs with an え sound kana at their conjugation point (excluding the 'potential' use of れる and られる).

Examples

  • (なか)いっぱいなのにケーキ()べさせられた

    I was made to eat the cake even though I was full.

  • (わたし)(あに)宿題(しゅくだい)させられた

    I was forced to do homework by my older brother.

  • どんなことさせられたの?

    What kind of things were you forced to do?

  • (いや)ことさせられた

    I was made to do awful things.

  • あまり()たくない動画(どうが)()させられたのです

    I was forced to watch a video I didn't really want to watch.

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Causative-Passive – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (16 in total)

  • Dsingis

    Dsingis

    About 1 year ago

    I wonder, which form is more common in day-to-day japanese? 歩かせられる or 歩かされる ?

    My Genki textbook said, that both are “grammatical”, but the shorter form 歩かされる is much more common. Yet in Bunpro I see no such comment, and all the example sentences use the long form. Also Togofu only teaches the longer form al well.

  • Fuga

    Fuga

    About 1 year ago

    Hey there! 歩かせられる is the more grammatical way of saying it, but 歩かされる is used in speech because it is a little easier to say. However, I feel like they are both equally as common since some people might prefer one over the other. Personally, speaking from a native perspective, I would used 歩かせられる when writing, but will use 歩かされる when I’m talking.

  • simias

    simias

    About 3 months ago

    Thank you for this very useful precision!

    I wish Bunpro would have dedicated grammar entries to practice these common shortenings.

    Another one that trips me up often in a different genre is 〜れば → 〜りゃ.

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