Grammar Info

N1 Lesson 5: 1/17


Whether or not

や否や is used to express "as soon as"


Verb + (いな)
[い]Adjective + (いな)
[な]Adjective + (である)+ (いな)
Noun + (である)+ (いな)


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About か否か

(いな) 'no' is an interjection in Japanese that is primarily paired with the adverbial particle か 'or' when stating 'whether or not (A)'. The literal meaning is just '(A) or no'. This is a very formal expression that will mainly be seen in writing.
(いな) may appear after almost any word in their standard forms.
  • この授業(じゅぎょう)(たの)しむ(いな)自分(じぶん)次第(しだい)だ。
    Whether you enjoy this class or not is up to you.
  • (こわ)(いな)(べつ)として、この映画(えいが)はとても面白(おもしろ)かった。
    Putting aside whether this movie was scary or not, it was really enjoyable.
  • あの(ひと)貧乏(びんぼう)である(いな)(わたし)たちには関係(かんけい)のないことです。
    Whether that person is poor or not is none of our business.
  • あの(ひと)がこの()父親(ちちおや)(いな)、DNA検査(けんさ)をしなくてはわからない。
    We will never know if that man is the father of this child or not without a DNA test.
This structure is often paired with words like べき 'ought to', を()わず 'without questioning', にかかわらず 'regardless of', and will be used to make determinations about the suitability of something based on a specific situation.




    A novel, narrator: 'King Su-won was hesitant about whether or not he should put the rebellion down by force.'


    Article title: 'Are pro gamers real athletes or not? The visa problem that eSports faces.' (whether or not)


    Cybersecurity company website: 'In the event that you receive an email in which you are unable to determine whether or not it is suspicious, do not open it and please contact us at [email protected].'


    Website, about cookie files: 'Users can decide whether or not they accept cookies. Users are also able to delete all accepted cookies anytime.'


    Event website: 'Entry qualifications: Regardless of whether you are a registered user or not, anyone can participate.'

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