Grammar Info

N2 Lesson 8: 9/22


To be expected to, To be scheduled to


Verb[る]+ ことになっている
Verb[ない]+ ことになっている


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About ことになっている

ことになっている is an alternation of ことになる, a grammar point showing that something has been decided by someone other than the speaker. It is a combination of the nominalizing use of こと (for creating noun-phrases), and the ている-form of the う-Verb なる 'to become'. The primary difference between ことになる and ことになっている is that the latter focuses more on that something is 'expected to (A)', or 'scheduled to (A)'. In other words, it is 'becoming that (A)', but has not actually happened yet.
This structure is often used after either the る or ない versions of verbs, in order to highlight the action which either is not not 'expected', or 'scheduled' to occur. Let's take a look at the 'scheduled to' meaning first.
  • 授業(じゅぎょう)は12()から(はじ)まることになっています
    The class is scheduled to start at 12.
  • 社長(しゃちょう)来週(らいしゅう)()(かい)参加(さんか)しないことになっています
    The president is scheduled to not come to the party next week.
When indicating that something is 'expected to (A)', this is an example of ている's use for expressing habitual or ongoing actions/states that reoccur under some specific set conditions.
  • タクシーは(ひだり)から()ことになっている
    It is expected for customers to get into the cab from the left side.
  • 生徒(せいと)たちは授業中(じゅぎょうちゅう)教室(きょうしつ)()れないことになっている
    Students are expected to not leave the classroom during class.



  • 会議(かいぎ)東京(とうきょう)ある官庁(かんちょう)(おこな)ことになっている

    The meeting is scheduled to take place in a government office in Tokyo.

    • (てら)(なか)(はい)(とき)は、礼儀(れいぎ)として(くつ)()ことになっている

      When you enter a temple, in terms of etiquette, you are expected to take off your shoes.

      • 電車(でんしゃ)規則(きそく)(ただ)しい時間(じかん)(えき)通過(つうか)することになっている

        The train is scheduled to pass through the station at regular times.

        • この(りょう)では、起床(きしょう)時間(じかん)は6:00ということになっている

          In this dorm, it is expected that you are up by six o'clock.

          • うちの会社(かいしゃ)では、仕事(しごと)(ちゅう)敬語(けいご)(はな)ことになっています

            At my company, it is expected that you speak using keigo while working.

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            ことになっている – Grammar Discussion

            Most Recent Replies (4 in total)

            • Kert


              There’s an example with “いろいろと引ひかれるので”
              Could someone explain why is there a と? Is it a part of いろいろ?

            • ljoekelsoey


              いろいろと is the adverb form of いろいろ
              Do you have the full sentence there?

            • mrnoone



              Like @ljoekelsoey says, いろいろと is an adverb form of いろいろ.
              The と is the quotation particle, but with its meaning extended/abstracted to expressions that are not simple quotations of speech.

              It is common with words that mimic sound (there are lots of those in Japanese!) - onomatopoeia.
              As you can see, the と can be often omitted! (except when the “sound” is not repeated)

              The と function has been also extended to words that depict bodily feelings, psychological states that are not actual sounds at all, basically something even more abstract. So you can find also words like:
              すっとする (to feel refreshed)

              I hope it helps a bit

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