Grammar Info

N2 Lesson 3: 6/23

にも(かか)わらず

Despite, In spite of, Regardless, Nevertheless

Do not confuse with にかかわらず

Structure

Verb + にもかかわら
[い]Adjective + にもかかわら
[な]Adjective + である + にもかかわら
Noun + (である)+ にもかかわら

Details

  • Register

    Standard

  • 使用域

    一般

About にもかかわらず

にもかかわらず is a formal grammar structure in Japanese used to convey that something is 'in spite of (A)', or 'despite (A)'. This pattern is a combination of に, も, the う-Verb (かか)わる 'to fixate on', or 'to stick to', and the literary auxiliary verb ず, which connects with verbs in the same way, and carries the same meaning as ない.
This structure is most frequently seen connected to verbs, い-Adjectives and nouns in their standard forms. In most cases, this pattern will appear without kanji.
  • 浜崎(はまさき)さんは毎日(まいにち)一生懸命(いっしょうけんめい)(はたら)いていたのにもかかわらず会社(かいしゃ)をクビになった。
    Despite working hard every day, Hamasaki-san was fired by the company.
  • (かれ)(わる)いのにもかかわらず(わたし)(あやま)らそうとしてきた。
    Despite him being in the wrong, he tried to make me apologize.
  • 田中(たなか)さんは(やさ)しくて親切(しんせつ)であるにもかかわらず()()(こわ)いから田中(たなか)さんのことをよく()らない(ひと)からは(こわ)がらて()けられている。
    Despite Tanaka-san being kind and helpful, he's feared and avoided by those who don't know him well because of his scary appearance.
  • 深夜(しんや)にもかかわらず上司(じょうし)鬼電(おにでん)をしてきたので労基(ろうき)報告(ほうこく)しようと(おも)う。
    Despite being late at night, my boss blew up my phone, so I'm thinking of reporting it to the labor standards inspection office.
Literally, this phrase can be thought of as expressing 'without being affected by (A), (B)', or 'without fixating on (A), (B)'. However, it is almost always used in exactly the same way as のに 'despite'.
Caution - It is important not to get にも(かか)わらず mixed up with に(かか)わらず. The former expresses 'despite', while the latter tends to be used more often for 'no matter if'.
  • (きゃく)さんが()ることを()っていたにもかかわらず部屋(へや)掃除(そうじ)をしていなかったので息子(むすこ)(しか)った。
    Despite knowing that we were going to have guests over, my son did not clean his room so I scolded him.
  • (きゃく)さんが()るかどうか(かか)わらず部屋(へや)綺麗(きれい)にしておいてください。
    Please keep your room clean no matter if guests are coming or not.

Examples

  • 古代(こだい)ローマ時代(じだい)、ガリアはローマによって征服(せいふく)されたにもかかわらずある(ちい)さな(むら)はなおも(たたか)(つづ)けた。

    In Ancient Roman times, despite Gaul being conquered by Rome, a certain small village was still fighting.

  • (すべ)ての物体(ぶったい)は、その大小(だいしょう)にもかかわらず真空(しんくう)においては(おな)速度(そくど)落下(らっか)する

    All objects, regardless of their size, fall at the same speed in a vacuum.

  • オデュッセウスは多数(たすう)危険(きけん)にもかかわらず大変(たいへん)努力(どりょく)結果(けっか)、ついに(かれ)(くに)(かえ)ことができた。

    Despite numerous dangers, Odysseus was able to finally return to his country as a result of his great efforts.

  • (くま)(おも)にもかかわらず(はや)(はし)れたり、()(のぼ)れたりするので、危険(きけん)動物(どうぶつ)だ。本物(ほんもの)()かけたら、じっとして(おどろ)かさないでください。

    Despite being heavy, since bears run fast, climb trees, and more, they are dangerous animals. If you happen to see one, stand still and do not surprise them.

  • 単独(たんどく)無名(むめい)英雄(えいゆう)満身(まんしん)創痍(そうい)((きず)だらけ)だった。それにもかかわらず気力(きりょく)のみで、(ぞう)のように()った。素晴(すば)らしい景色(けしき)だったと(おも)

    A sole, nameless hero was wounded all over. Nevertheless, by sheer force of will, he remained standing like a statue. It was quite a beautiful sight.

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にもかかわらず – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (2 in total)

  • Flavyouu

    Flavyouu

    About 3 years ago

    "全すべての物体ぶったいは、その大小だいしょう にもかかわらず 、真空しんくうにおいては同おなじ速度そくどで落下らっかする。

    All objects, regardless of their size, fall at the same speed in a vacuum."

    This is the only example that uses ‘regardless’;

    Can I also use にかかわらず here?

  • speedaemon

    speedaemon

    About 1 year ago

    It’s mentioned to be Formal in several different places, but the Register has it marked as Casual?

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