Grammar Info

N2 Lesson 6: 1/20


Go against, Contrary to

formal writing, formal speech


Noun + (はん)(て)
Noun + (はん)する + Noun


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About に反して

(はん)して, a combination of に and the て-form of (はん)する 'to oppose', or 'to go against', is a construction in Japanese that is used to present counter opinions or arguments in relation to the previous statement. Common translations include 'contrary to (A), (B)', and 'going against (A), (B)'.
(はん)して will appear after nouns, before expressing some opposing or contrasting point. Alternatively, に(はん)する may be used when directly modifying the following noun.
  • (かれ)らは会社(かいしゃ)のルール(はん)して交際(こうさい)をしているらしい。
    I heard that they are dating, which goes against the company rules.
  • 予想(よそう)(はん)してクライアントの反応(はんのう)がいまいちだったので、最初(さいしょ)からやり(なお)さなきゃいけない。
    Contrary to our expectations, the client's response was not good, so we had to start over from the beginning.
  • (わたし)上司(じょうし)指示(しじ)(はん)することはできません。
    I cannot do anything that goes against my supervisor's instructions.
Unlike (たい)して, (はん)して will often be used when a prediction does not match the actual reality of a situation.
  • 予想(よそう)(はん)して(はや)()える(こと)ができた。
    Contrary to our expectations, we were able to finish early. (Natural Japanese)
  • 予想(よそう)(たい)して(はや)()える(こと)ができた。
    Contrary to our expectations, we were able to finish early. (Unnatural Japanese)
(はん)して is a fairly formal grammar pattern, so will be found mostly in literature, official documents, or speeches.




    Contrary to the will of my parents, I left my hometown and moved to the capital.


    Contrary to expectations, our team beat the team that won the race last year!


    The existence of magic goes against common sense, but thanks to the rich imagination of authors, we can dive into the world of magic through movies and books.


    Contrary to some children receiving bad grades even if they study every day, others get good grades even if they do not study at all.


    Contrary to other ancient empires that have collapsed, Atlantis still exists.

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