Grammar Info

N1 Lesson 3: 7/17


Ultimate, Extreme, Utter, Epitome, Peak


Noun + + (きわ)


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About の極み

When paired with a noun followed by the case-marking particle の, (きわ)み 'extremity' will indicate something that is 'the ultimate (A)', 'the extreme (A)', or 'the epitome of (A)'. This may be used in either positive or negative sentences.
  • あと5(ふん)()って()れば(わたし)大好(だいす)きなアイドルに()えていたとは...痛恨(つうこん)(きわ)だ。
    If only I had waited five more minutes, I would have met my favorite idol... It's the peak of despair.
  • (いま)までこんなに()くしてくれて、感激(かんげき)(きわ)です。
    I am beyond thrilled that you have been so good to me so far.
  • 有給(ゆうきゅう)()るなとか鬼畜(きちく)(きわ)だ。
    Telling us to not take paid time off? That's the epitome of being evil.
As (きわ)み itself is a noun, it will often be followed by the auxiliary verb だ, or the conjunctive form で when going on to describe something that is as a result of (A).
  • こんな景色(けしき)がいいところで、こんな美味(おい)しい料理(りょうり)()べられるなんて、なんて贅沢(ぜいたく)(きわ)だ。
    It's the ultimate luxury to be able to eat such delicious food in such a scenic place.
  • この(きょく)歌詞(かし)感動(かんどう)(きわ)で、()くたびに(なみだ)(あふ)()てくる。
    The lyrics of this song are the peak of emotion and bring tears to my eyes every time I listen to it.
(きわ) is a structure that is paired with nouns, while (きわ)まる and (きわ)まりない are grammar patterns that will be paired with adjectives, despite the meanings being quite similar.


  • 小説(しょうせつ):「ダイモス(おう)この報道(ほうどう)()いて、(おどろ)(きわ)(たっ)しました。」

    Novel: 'Hearing the news, the King Daimos reached the very peak of surprise.'

    極み often appears as 極みに達する and 極みにある.

  • 目上(めうえ)(ひと)にはじめて出会(であ)(とき):「お()()かることができ、光栄(こうえい)(きわ)です。」

    When meeting a superior for the first time: 'It is an extreme honor to be able to meet you.'

  • レストランサイト:「寿司(すし) - 日本(にほん)(きわ)(おも)米飯(べいはん)魚介類(ぎょかいるい)など()()わせた和食(わしょく)です。」

    Restaurant website: 'Sushi - the epitome of Japan. This Japanese-style meal is made by combining fish and shellfish with cooked rice.'

  • 地震(じしん)によってビル()()められた人々(ひとびと)混乱(こんらん)(きわ)にあった。

    The people trapped in the building due to the earthquake were in extreme (utter) turmoil.

  • 釈迦(しゃか)(さま)当初(とうしょ)贅沢(ぜいたく)(きわ)()くした生活(せいかつ)をしていた。

    At first, Buddha lived an utterly luxurious life.

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