Grammar Info

N1 Lesson 4: 12/17


Because, The reason is, Due to, Therefore, So


Noun + ((1)) + ゆえ + (
Noun + ((1)) + ゆえ + + Noun
[な]Adjective + ((1))+ ゆえ + (
[な]Adjective + ((1))+ ゆえ + + Noun
[い]Adjective + (が)+ ゆえ + (
[い]Adjective + (が)+ ゆえ + + Noun
Verb + (が)+ ゆえ + (
Verb + (が)+ ゆえ + + Noun
Phrase (A)。(その(2))+ ゆえ + +Phrase (B)

(1) である、が、である
(2) それそれ


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About ゆえに

When the noun (ゆえ) 'consequence' is paired with the case marking particle に, it will be used in formal situations to highlight reasons. This may be interpreted as 'because of (A)', 'due to (A)', or 'the reason is (A)'. However, 'consequently to (A)', or 'as a consequence of (A)' are also completely acceptable translations that may help to differentiate ゆえに from less formal structures.
As ゆえ itself is a noun, regular grammar rules such as being preceded by の will need to be followed if directly following another noun. In other cases, ゆえに will simply attach to the standard form of words.
  • (まわ)りさんたちが(よる)(ねむ)らずにパトロールしているが(ゆえ)(よる)でも安心(あんしん)して散歩(さんぽ)できる。
    Due to the police officers patrolling the area at night without sleep, it makes it safe for us to go on walks at night.
  • (わたし)のおじいちゃんは()(わるい)いが(ゆえ)運転免許証(うんてんめんきょしょう)返納(へんのう)した。
    My grandpa had to give up his driver's license because of his bad eyesight.
  • (かれ)接客(せっきゃく)丁寧(ていねい)(ゆえ)、お(きゃく)さんからの評判(ひょうばん)がいい。
    His customer service is courteous and therefore well received by his customers.
  • 日本(にほん)ではまだ女性(じょせい)ゆえに差別(さべつ)されることがある。
    In Japan, women are still discriminated against because of their gender.
ゆえに may also appear at the beginning of new sentences. When this happens, it expresses 'as a result of (A)', where (A) is the entire previous sentence.
  • あの(くに)では高齢化(こうれいか)深刻(しんこく)問題(もんだい)になってきている。ゆえに海外(かいがい)から若者(わかもの)()()(はじ)めた。
    Aging is becoming a serious problem in that country. Due to that, they have started to attract young people from abroad.
The に will need to be replaced with の when ゆえ is being connected to another noun and therefore modifying it.
  • (わか)ゆえの(あやま)ちであったとしても(かなら)(ゆる)さなければならないということでもない。
    Just because something was done due to a young age, doesn't mean that it should be forgiven.
Just like 'as a consequence of' in English, ゆえに tends to be used far more frequently in regard to negative reasons than positive ones.


  • 小説(しょうせつ):「ベンジャミンの(わか)ゆえ自信過剰(じしんかじょう)無知(むち)もミセス・ロビンソンの()からすれば、可愛(かわい)らしい。」

    Novel: 'From the perspective of Mrs. Robinson, Benjamin's overconfidence and naivety, due to his youthfulness, is charming.'

    若さゆえ is a common phrase (for ゆえ). Alternatively 若いゆえ or 若いがゆえ can be used, but are much less common.

    • A⇒B、B⇒C ゆえにA⇒C (Aが(しん)ならばBも(しん)、Bが(しん)ならばCも(しん)ゆえにAが(しん)ならばCも(しん)である)

      A⇒B、B⇒C therefore A⇒C (If A, then B, if B then C. Therefore if A, then C)

      故 can often be seen in various textbooks and academic papers.

      • ラテン()のフレーズ:「不合理(ふごうり)ゆえにわれ(しん)ず 」

        Latin phrase: 'I believe just because it is absurd.'

        • ファンタジー小説(しょうせつ):「 ドワーフ(ぞく)(ほろ)んだのは(とみ)(たい)する()くなき欲望(よくぼう)ゆえであった。」

          Fantasy novel: 'The reason for the dwarves' undoing was their untiring desire for wealth.'

          • 手紙(てがみ):「季節(きせつ)()わり()ゆえ、くれぐれもご自愛(じあい)くださいませ。」

            Letter: 'Since the seasons are changing, please take good care of yourself.'

            This can sound a bit old-fashioned. 変わり目ですので is more common nowadays.

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