Grammar Info

N5 Lesson 2: 7/12

る-Verb (Negative)

Will/Does/Do (not)

Structure

Examples:
​​() + ない
​​() + ない
() + ない

Details

  • Part of Speech

    Verb

  • Word Type

    Auxiliary Verb

  • Register

    Standard

  • 品詞

    動詞

  • 単語の種類

    助動詞

  • 使用域

    一般

About る-Verb (Negative)

The negative form of る-Verbs are conjugated based on the same set of rules used for other forms of る-Verb conjugation (removal of る, followed by the addition of something else). In the case of negation, the additional component will be ない (casual), or ません (polite).
  • (わたし)(にく)()ない
    I don't eat meat.
  • (わたし)黒板(こくばん)()ません
    I can't see the black board.
While the common translation of ない and ません is simply 'not', they actually have several possible nuances. These nuances are 'don't' (usually not), 'won't' (intentionally not), or 'can't' (unintentionally not).
  • (わたし)(ひと)名前(なまえ)(おぼ)ない
    I can't remember people's names. (Unintentionally not)
  • (わたし)プレゼント()ません
    I won't open the present. (Intentionally not)
Both ない and ません are auxiliary verbs (ません is a conjugation of ます), meaning that they have their own set of conjugation rules.
Caution
The ない attached to make the negative form of adjectives is a different word, and therefore follows different conjugation rules. When attached to adjectives ない itself is an い-Adjective, and not an auxiliary verb.

Examples

  • 寿司(すし)()ない
    寿司(すし)()ないです
    寿司(すし)()ません

    I don't eat sushi.

  • テレビ()ない
    テレビ()ないです
    テレビ()ません

    I don't watch TV.

  • (かね)()ない
    (かね)()ないです
    (かね)()ません

    I will not borrow money.

  • パン()ない
    パン()ないです
    パン()ません

    I don't eat bread.

  • ホラー映画(えいが)()ない
    ホラー映画(えいが)()ないです
    ホラー映画(えいが)()ません

    I don't watch horror movies.

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る-Verb (Negative) – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (29 in total)

  • KanjiCollector

    KanjiCollector

    About 2 months ago

    Think this topic requires more explanation on the differences between “naidesu” and “masen”. It’s not really explained why you’d use one over the other.

  • algannaio

    algannaio

    About 29 days ago

    Think this topic requires more explanation on the differences between “naidesu” and “masen”. It’s not really explained why you’d use one over the other.

    Bumping this thread because this is my question too. The main item does say that the nuance difference between -ないです and -ません is that the former seems to indicate “unintentionally not” and the latter “intentionally not.”

  • Pablunpro

    Pablunpro

    About 29 days ago

    Hi!

    If you read the grammar point carefully, it always speaks about -ない (casual) and -ません (polite). Actually, -ないです (another possibility for polite, perfectly explained by @nekoyama here) is not mentioned anywhere in the grammar point but only in the usage box in the upper left.

    Further to this, the several nuances referred to are applicable to the negative form as such, irrespective of the level of language. As usual, it all boils down to context.

    (The example sentences are unfortunate, though, as one is casual and the other polite so that it is easy to imply that casual = unintentional and polite = intentional, which is not the case. I guess these are the source of the misunderstanding.)

    HTH!

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