Grammar Info

N5 Lesson 2: 4/12

る-Verb (Dictionary)

る + ます (Ichidan Verbs)

Short form is also often called 'casual form' (because it is used in casual language), or 'plain form'




  • Part of Speech


  • Part of Speech

    Independent Word

  • Register


  • 品詞


  • 単語の種類


  • 使用域


About る-Verb (Dictionary)

る-Verbs are verbs that have only one possible conjugation pattern. This pattern simply involves the replacement of る with another construction, depending on the tense of the verb (past, negative, etc). This conjugation pattern that only includes る is where the Japanese name Ichidan (一段(いちだん)) 'one-level' comes from.

In these examples, we can see that る is removed from the verb to create the polite ます form. The る form of the verb is often called 'plain form', 'casual form', or 'short form', depending on the source/book.
All る-Verbs end in the kana る, there are no exceptions to this rule.


While all る-Verbs end in る, not all verbs that end in る are る-Verbs. These verbs can be identified by the る changing, rather than being removed when conjugated.

  • それ()
    I will take that too.
  • それ()ります
    I will take that too.

As the る in ()る becomes り in ()ります, we can determine immediately that it is not a る-Verb, but actually a う-Verb.




    To look


    To go to sleep


    To memorize/remember


    To eat


    To wash/shower

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る-Verb (Dictionary) – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (8 in total)

  • MatzBlanc


    My review was:

    (Casual) → 借かります

    How am I supposed to know if it is the Godan or Ichidan Version casual version?

    They both are the same when polite, no ?

  • steffuld


    I’ve never thought about it before, but is it true that ichidan verbs always end in -iru or -eru?
    This vastly simplifies telling apart ichidan and godan verbs, imo. Should be a ‘fun fact’ or something.

  • Fuga


    It is true that ichidan verbs end in -iru or -eru, however there are exceptions and not all verbs that end in -iru and -eru are ichidan verbs.

    For example 切る ‘kiru’ ends in -iru and 減る ‘heru’ ends in -eru, but these are both godan verbs.

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