Grammar Info

N5 Lesson 2: 4/12

る-Verb (Dictionary)

る + ます (Ichidan Verbs)

Short form is also often called 'casual form' (because it is used in casual language), or 'plain form'




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    Independent Word

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About る-Verb (Dictionary)

る-Verbs are verbs that have only one possible conjugation pattern. This pattern simply involves the replacement of る with another construction, depending on the tense of the verb (past, negative, etc). This 'single' type of conjugation is where the Japanese name Ichidan (一段(いちだん)) 'one-step' comes from.
  • 生徒(せいと)(こた)
    The student answers.
  • 生徒(せいと)(こた)ます
    The student answers.
  • (わたし)()
    I will close it. ('It' is implied, despite no object being stated)
  • (わたし)()ます
    I will close it. ('It' is implied, despite no object being stated)
In these examples, we can see that る is removed from the verb to create the polite ます form. The る form of the verb is often called 'plain form', 'casual form', or 'short form', depending on the source/book.
All る-Verbs end in the kana る, there are no exceptions to this rule.
While all る-Verbs end in る, not all verbs that end in る are る-Verbs. These verbs can be identified by the る changing, rather than being removed when conjugated.
  • それ()
    I will take that too.
  • それ()ります
    I will take that too.
As the る in ()る becomes り in ()ります, we can determine immediately that it is not a る-Verb, but actually a う - Verb.


  • ()()ます

    To look

  • ()()ます

    To go to sleep

  • (おぼ)(おぼ)ます

    To memorize/remember

  • ()()ます

    To eat

  • ()()ます

    To wash/shower

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る-Verb (Dictionary) – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (6 in total)

  • mrnoone


    No problemo, if you have problems just write on forums

  • Phosphophyllite


    is this item missing example sentences for the
    食べ なかった ・食べ ませんでした
    forms? or am I misunderstanding something?

  • MatzBlanc


    My review was:

    (Casual) → 借かります

    How am I supposed to know if it is the Godan or Ichidan Version casual version?

    They both are the same when polite, no ?

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