Grammar Info

N3 Lesson 9: 4/22

()

Intended for, Aimed at

Structure

Noun + ()け(に)
Noun + 向け + + Noun

Details

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    Standard

  • 使用域

    一般

About 向け

() is a shortened form of the transitive verb ()ける 'to aim at', and is considered to be a 造語(ぞうご) (neologism). This means a word that was created for a specific purpose, and may not necessarily be used for anything outside of that purpose. The purpose of () is to attach to other nouns, in order to express that something is 'intended for (A)', 'aimed at (A)', or 'oriented toward (A)'.
() may be seen followed by the case marking particle (when followed by a phrase), or the case marking particle の, when linked with another noun.
  • この教科書(きょうかしょ)上級者(じょうきゅうしゃ)()()いてある。
    This textbook is written oriented toward advanced people.
  • 子供(こども)()()かれた(ほん)()んで日本語(にほんご)勉強(べんきょう)したら?
    Why don't you study Japanese by reading books written for children?
  • オフィス()パソコン10(だい)()としたらいくらになりますか。
    If I were to buy 10 computers intended for office use, how much would that cost?
  • これ大人(おとな)()映画(えいが)から、お(まえ)()せれないよ。
    This movie is intended for adults so I can't show it to you.
In terms of products and similar items, although () highlights that something has been intended for (A), it doesn't necessarily mean that it is limited to (A).
  • (わたし)()でいる(ところ)一人(ひとり)()らし()アパートだけれども、3(にん)家族(かぞく)でもなん不便(ふべん)()()める。
    The place I am living is intended for one person, but even as a three person family, we can live there with no inconveniences.
Caution
(), coming from the transitive verb ()ける is used far more often to express that something has been specifically designed for (A). On the other hand, the suffix stemming from the intransitive verb ()く, (()), expresses something that faces toward (A), but perhaps not intentionally.
  • そのおもちゃは(ねこ)()(つく)られている
    That toy is made for cats.
  • 上級者(じょうきゅうしゃ)()(ほん)(むずか)しいです
    Books suitable for advanced learners are hard.

Examples

  • この番組(ばんぐみ)大人(おとな)()だ。

    This TV program is aimed at adults.

  • この教科書(きょうかしょ)算数(さんすう)(まな)んでいる(ひと)()だから日本語(にほんご)(まな)んでいる(ひと)には(やく)()たない。

    This textbook is intended for people who are learning math, so it won't help those who are studying Japanese.

  • ドラゴンボールはアニメだけど、若者(わかもの)()だ。小学生(しょうがくせい)以下(いか)子供(こども)()じゃない。

    'Dragonball' is an anime aimed at young people, but it is not intended for elementary school students or younger.

  • まずは初心者(しょしんしゃ)()参考書(さんこうしょ)勉強(べんきょう)した(ほう)いいです

    First of all, I think it would be better if you studied with a textbook aimed at beginners.

  • これ海外(かいがい)()番組(ばんぐみ)だから(なに)()っているのか全然(ぜんぜん)()からない

    This is a TV program aimed at foreigners, so I have no idea what is being said.

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向け – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (2 in total)

  • megatron0000

    megatron0000

    About 4 years ago

    I would like to inform that the “Community Discussion” link on the grammar page is not redirecting to here !

    Also, I found this link to be helpful at making sure I understood the difference (although maybe minimal) between 向け and 向き. Would it be desirable to have it listed among the “Readings” ?

  • mrnoone

    mrnoone

    About 4 years ago

    Hey

    I would like to inform that the “Community Discussion” link on the grammar page is not redirecting to here !

    Fixed!

    Also, I found this link to be helpful at making sure I understood the difference (although maybe minimal) between 向け and 向き. Would it be desirable to have it listed among the “Readings” ?

    I have added it, very good explanation

    Thank you!

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