Grammar Info

N3 Lesson 10: 19/20


It is (has been), Have/has become, Happen to be, Has been established


[な]Adjective + なっている
Noun + なっている


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About ~は~となっている

(A) は (B) となっている is a common expression used to show that '(A) is becoming (B)', or (more commonly) '(A) has become (B)'. This expression will only appear with nouns, or な-Adjectives in their 語幹(ごかん) (stem form). (A) は (B) となっている is often translated as '(A) happens to be (B)', '(A) has been established as (B)', or 'it has been decided that (A) is (B)'.
Let's have a look at some examples, and then how this structure is formed.
  • 鬼滅(きめつ)(やいば)非常(ひじょう)人気(にんき)となっている
    It happens to be that Demon Slayer is very popular.
  • 日本(にほん)ドラッグは法律上(ほうりつじょう)違法(いほう)となっている
    In Japan, it has been established that drugs are illegal, by law.
  • このプールで()()禁止(きんし)となっている
    At this pool, it happens to be that jumping in is not allowed.
Despite the different translations, (A) は (B) となっている always has the same meaning, which can be understood as follows:
(A) は - (A) is a constant unchanging thing.
(B) と - (B) is a result. (coming from the case marking particle と's role in highlighting results.
なっている - (A) is existing in the state 'having arrived at the result of (B)'.
  • (いま)時代(じだい)インターネット必要(ひつよう)となっている
    It is now that the internet is necessary in the present age.
  • この高校(こうこう)アルバイト禁止(きんし)となっている
    It is now that working part-time at this school is prohibited.
Due to this, the literal translation may be thought of as 'it is now that (A) is (B)' in almost all situations.
(A) は (B) となっている may be rephrased to (A) は (B) になっている. However, will remove much of the feeling of a 'result', or 'finality'. Due to this, it will just sound like (A) is becoming (B), but is not necessarily that way yet.
  • (いま)時代(じだい)インターネット必要(ひつよう)になっている
    It is now that the internet is becoming necessary in the present age.
In writing, おる is not always considered a 'formal' equivalent of いる, especially in set phrases. となっている is often seen as となっており, instead of となっていて. This is particularly common in news articles.
  • このイベントは来月(らいげつ)5()からとなっており、明日(あした)から(まえ)()(けん)()ことができる
    It is now that next month's event from the 5th has pre-order tickets that are purchasable from tomorrow.




    In some states, it has been established that the consumption of alcohol by children and young adults under 21 is illegal.


    The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand has been established as one of the causes of war.


    Starting with the USA, electricity has become the main source of light.


    The proportion of men to women in China happens to be 118 to 100.


    The due date of the tax payment has been established as April 31st.

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~は~となっている – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (3 in total)

  • MZa


    Could you explain why the と particle is used here? With which meaning? If it is as the quotation particle, i don’t see the logic behind it.

  • jptr


    "The verb なる means to be or to become, to turn into.

    Adding と and に in front it changes the meaning a bit.

    The basic differences? While になる is a natural change, となる implies having reached a final stage."

    From this article:となる-vs-になる -to-naru-vs-ni-naru/

  • blacktide


    Based on the post below on Japanese StackExchange, it seems that it’s the quotative particle, although I can’t find a good explanation to why.

    Here are some detailed nuances based on my studies.

    となる is similar to になる but with the following changes:

    • となる can only be used with nouns.
    • となる is more formal and not used often in conversation.
    • となる has a dramatic tone.
    • となる implies reaching a “final stage” as @jptr menti...

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