Grammar Info

N1 Lesson 2: 9/17

う・よう + が~まいが

Even if, No matter what, Whether or not, [Emphatic], Volitional + が


Even if / No matter what

Verb [おう] + (1)
Verb[まい] + (1)
Noun + だろう.(2) + (1)
[な]Adjective + だろう(2) + (1)
[い]Adjective[+ かろう + (1)

Whether or not

Verb [おう] + (1) + Verb[まい] + (1)
Noun (A) + だろう(2) + (1) + Noun (B) だろう(2) + (1)
[な]Adjective1 + だろう(2) + (1) + [な]Adjective2 + だろう(2) + (1)
[い]Adjective[+ かろう + (1) + [い]Adjective[+ かろう + (1)

(2) であろう


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About ようが~まいが

When both the positive and negative volitional auxiliary verbs are combined with a verb in Japanese, it has the nuance of 'whether or not (A)', the result will be (B)'. This is quite emphatic, and has a literal meaning similar to 'say it does (A) or say it doesn't (A), it will still be (B)'.
As a reminder, the positive auxiliary verbs of volition are either う or よう, depending on what they are being connected to, while the negative auxiliary verb of volition is まい. Either the case marking particle が or と will appear after both the positive and the negative, with が being slightly more common.
  • 忘年会(ぼうねんかい)出席(しゅっせき)しようが出席(しゅっせき)するまいが会費(かいひ)はみんなからもらっています。
    Whether you attend the year-end party or not, we will collect the admissions fee from everyone.
  • (あめ)()うが()まいが明日(あした)絶対(ぜったい)()りに()くと()めた。
    Whether it rains or not, I have decided to go fishing tomorrow.
While this structure is primarily seen after verbs, it is important to remember that other auxiliary verbs such as だ can be conjugated in the same way, as can い-Adjectives with the less common かろう structure. This means that both nouns, な-Adjectives and い-Adjectives can also appear using a similar grammar pattern. However, because the negative volitional まい cannot pair with these structures, an antonym will usually appear with them instead, with both words using the う or よう positive volitional.
  • (たの)かろうが(たの)しくなかろうが学校(がっこう)子供(こども)仕事(しごと)だから学校(がっこう)には()かなくてはだめだ。
    Whether it is fun or not, school is a child's job, so you must go to school.
  • 安全(あんぜん)だろうが安全(あんぜん)なかろうが、2メートル以上(いじょう)場所(ばしょ)()がる場合(ばあい)安全帯(あんぜんたい)(かなら)装着(そうちゃく)してください。
    Whether it is safe or not, always wear a safety belt when you climb to a place higher than 2 meters.
  • (いぬ)であろうが(ねこ)であろうが、どちらにしても動物(どうぶつ)なので(かる)気持(きも)ちで()っては()けない。
    Whether it is a dog or a cat, they are both animals, so they must not be bought on a whim.
Based primarily on the use of volitionals, this grammar pattern will often indicate the speaker's strong will or opinion that will not change regardless of (A).




    No matter what people say, I will always love you!


    Whether or not students attend, I will proceed with my lecture as planned.


    Even if it takes many years, I intend to find the dragon balls!


    Whether the product is of good quality or low quality, if it sells well, it sells well.


    Whether learning Japanese is difficult or easy, I will learn until I become fluent.

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ようが~まいが – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (2 in total)

  • Melanthe


    Why not split up this grammar point into a ‘even if/no matter what’ and an ‘whether or not’? That way we’d get more opportunities to practise each one. As it is right now, I doubt two sentences is enough to master the ‘even if/no matter what’ version.

  • wrt7MameLZE33wlmpCAV


    Are が・と supposed to be missing from the structure details for 形容詞?

    image718×508 26.2 KB

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