Grammar Info

N4 Lesson 1: 14/18

ないで

Without doing, Not ~ and ~

Structure

Verb[ない]+

Details

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    Standard

  • 使用域

    一般

About ないで

There are two primary ways in which ないで is used with verbs in Japanese. The first is to express 'without doing (A), (B)'. The second is to request that someone 'not do (A)'. We will examine the first in this write-up.
ないで is a combination of the auxiliary verb ない, and the particle . Due to this, keeps its standard meaning of 'with/by', in relation to 'not' doing something.
  • (さかな)()ない()から、お(なか)(こわ)
    Since I ate fish without cooking it, I got a stomach ache. (Literally, to break one's stomach)
  • アミドアカギかけない()の?(あぶ)ない
    Ami, you sleep without locking your doors? That's dangerous.
When ないで is used to express that '(A) has not been done before doing (B)', this is usually contrary to some kind of expectation. Because of this, ないで is often used to express something that may be surprising to the listener.
  • 上司(じょうし)(つた)ないで(やす)んだの!?
    You took the day off without notifying your boss!?

Examples

  • (やす)ないで仕事(しごと)する

    To work without taking a break.

  • 後悔(こうかい)ないで()たい。」

    'I want to live without regret.'

  • あの(ひと)便所(べんじょ)から()(あら)ないで()てきたんだ。」

    'That person left the toilet without washing their hands!'

  • 夕食(ゆうしょく)()ないで()

    To go to bed without eating dinner.

  • (あそ)ないで勉強(べんきょう)してくださいって(かあ)さん()いました

    My mother said 'Please study without playing!'

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    • Genki II 1st Edition

      Page 161

    • みんなの日本語 I

      Page 110 [CH 17]

    • Genki II 2nd Edition

      Page 191

    • みんなの日本語 II

      Page 60 [CH 34]

    • Marugoto Elementary 2 (A2) Rikai

      Page 108

    • [DBJG] A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar

      Page 271

    • Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide

      Page 279

    • [AIAIJ] An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese

      Page 35

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ないで – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (15 in total)

  • mrnoone

    mrnoone

    About 4 years ago

    Hey

    You are correct:+1:

    ないで is not necessarily prohibitive, it means “…not, and…” or “…without…”. It is basically used to connect two clauses, like て form.
    Though it is used in ...

  • Meatdog

    Meatdog

    About 1 month ago

    Can we get some examples for this grammar point when it expresses “The second is to request that someone ‘not do (A)’.”?

    Every example sentence I’ve found ultimately fits in the first grammar point “The first is to express ‘without doing (A), (B)’.”

    What would an example of a request to no do (A) look like?

  • IcyIceBear

    IcyIceBear

    About 1 month ago

    言わないで(ください)
    Don’t say it (please)

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