Grammar Info

N3 Lesson 2: 21/22


Based on, In accordance with


Noun + (もと)づいて
Noun + (もと)づい + Noun


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About にもとづいて

In order to say that one thing is 'based on' another in Japanese, the expression (もと)づいて will be used. This is a combination of the case marking particle に, the う - Verb, (もと)づく 'to originate from', and the conjunction particle て. This expression regularly highlights some kind of judgement/conclusion that the speaker has made, using (A) as their base.
To use (もと)づいて, put the noun (or noun phrase) that you would like to identify as a 'basis' before (もと)づいて, and then express your judgment/conclusion in part (B) of the sentence.
  • クライアント指示(しじ)(もと)づいて編集(へんしゅう)しておきました。
    I have edited this based on the client's instructions. (Edited in advance, assuming that would be the client's wishes)
  • 以前(いぜん)成功(せいこう)した計画(けいかく)(もと)づいて(あたら)しい計画(けいかく)()ようと(おも)っています
    I am thinking of making a new plan based on the previous successful plan.
Alternatively, the past form of (もと)づく may be used when connected directly to a second noun. (A) に(もと)づいた (B) directly expresses that (B) is based on (A).
  • (わたし)実話(じつわ)(もと)づいた映画(えいが)()です
    I like movies based on true stories.
  • 来週(らいしゅう)までに、アンケート(もと)づいたグラフ作成(さくせい)てください
    By next week, please make a graph based on these surveys.
Fun Fact
The kanji (もと) is fairly accurately translated as 'foundation', and is regularly used to highlight things that 'stem' from something. Due to this, (もと)づいて may also be used to identify things that are 'produced from (A)', 'created from (A)', or 'invented based on (A)'.
  • あの(くに)法律(ほうりつ)宗教(しゅうきょう)(もと)づいて(つく)られている
    That country's law is founded on religion.
  • 先月(せんげつ)(もら)った資料(しりょう)(もと)づいてこのレポート()きました。
    I wrote this paper based on the documents you gave me last month.
  • この小説(しょうせつ)歴史(れきし)(てき)実話(じつわ)(もと)づいてかかれている
    This novel is written based on true historical events.


  • 歴史(れきし)(てき)事実(じじつ)(もと)づいて(つく)られた映画(えいが)

    A movie based on actual historical events.

  • 個人(こじん)(てき)意見(いけん)(もと)づいて()かれた文章(ぶんしょう)

    An essay based on my personal opinion.

  • あなた意見(いけん)(もと)づいて変更(へんこう)(くわ)えました。

    I implemented a modification based on your opinion.

  • 信用(しんよう)(もと)づいて(かね)()

    I lend money based on trust.

  • 間違(まちが)った前提(ぜんてい)(もと)づいているから、当然(とうぜん)結果(けっか)間違(まちが)っている。

    The results are incorrect because (the experiment) is being based on incorrect assumptions.

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にもとづいて – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (4 in total)

  • nekoyama


    About 2 years ago

    Yes, 基付く is an alternative spelling.

  • MZa


    About 2 years ago

    Thanks! Knowing this will help a lot.

  • dokidokiwakuwaku


    About 6 months ago

    I am having some trouble understanding the distinction between this point and の下で – for example, in the sample sentence ちゃんと計画に基づいて、動いてください, would ちゃんと計画のもとで、動いてください not have the same meaning?

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